Physical, chemical or biological values are transformed by sensor elements into electrical variables, amplified and standardised with electronic circuits and digitesed for further processing. For example measurement of water temperature for a coffer maker.
The control elements job is to take a known number of input conditions in combination with internal device states and generate output instructions. Forther it may communicate with other control systems and MMI's via BUS systems. For example the roof sign of a Taxi can be switched on or off based on a number of input conditions.
The regulators function is to ensure that a physical variable (controlled value) equals and holds a defined or reference value independently of external influences. For example the RPM regulation of a power tool.